Calgary is at the top and Trois Rivieres, Que., is at the bottom of a list of family-friendly cities in Canada.
The Institute of Marriage and Family Canada, a pro-family think-tank based in Ottawa, published the study. The list is based on everything from bike paths to the prevalence of two-parent families.
"A strong family starts with mom and dad," said Andrea Mrozek, co-author of the study.
Mrozek and partner Rebecca Walberg also give high marks for extended families. Vancouver and Toronto each received an A for the percentage of seniors living with families.
Calgary leads the overall list, picking up high marks for green space, average family income and education. Ottawa finished ninth, and Toronto was 14th. At the bottom of the list is Trois-Rivieres, which received low marks for average family income and percentage of children living with two married parents.
Of the 33 cities graded, none received an overall F. Toronto received an F for high mortgage payments and Winnipeg received an F for its homicide rate.
30. St. John's, N.L.
31. Thunder Bay
32. Saint John, N.B.